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To be clear, the problem of incommensurability may be read in three different ways: as a conceptual, an epistemic, or a moral problem. According to the conceptual reading, the problem is that it is impossible to compare the value of goods like different lives: as this value is determined by subjective evaluations there are no objective standards or metrics for making reliable measurements. According to the epistemic reading, whereas there may be in principle reliable objective standards to decide whether one particular life is more valuable than other particular lives, agents involved in dilemmatic circumstances may not have the information, the time or the capacity to make a proper evaluation. Moreover, they may not be able to assess the long-term consequences of their actions. According to the normative reading, no matter whether lives and property can be compared or their values measured, the rights to life and property owed to different individuals cannot be compared or traded with other rights: they just have to be respected. Those discussed in this section are mainly conceptual and epistemic reasons: the right-based reasons will be discussed in a separate section below.

It is worth noting that from a conceptual and epistemic point of view, the incommensurability problem usually does not constitute an obstacle to utilitarian calculi in circumstances where some property should be taken or damaged in order to save one or more lives, as any property may be arguably be considered as less valuable than any life. In ( Valentino Garavani Macro Stud sandals 2AY7m1reh
), for instance, a lorry driver was acquitted from trespassing and damaging the claimant’s property, as this was done in order to avoid the collision with an upcoming vehicle.

Moreover, it has been claimed that as serious as it may be in most emergency circumstances, the conceptual incommensurability argument does not apply to catastrophic scenarios where the sacrifice of the life of one or few persons may prevent the death of a huge number. According to Michael S. Moore, “ may not torture to save the lives of two others, but he may do so to save a thousand lives” (Alexander and Moore 2015 , referring to Moore Salvatore Ferragamo Womens Berra Reversible Gancini Leather Drivers fmB5GqO
, ch. 17). However, as pointed out by Christie ( 1999 ), a right-based approach may lead to a different conclusion, and in fact human right international law adopts a stricter approach, one that prohibits torture under circumstances.

Is incommensurability a problem for an utilitarian programming of AVs? If one sees incommensurability of lives and properties as a mere epistemic rather than a conceptual or moral problem, then it can be argued that the artificial intelligence of AV may in principle be able to eventually overcome this problem. An evaluation of factors like age, profession, health and financial conditions, family status and social relations of the persons involved in a potential accident may be in principle included in the programming of a vehicle, much in the same way in which these factors are included in the insurance companies’ assessments of the availability and costs of insurances for different clients. Even more so, given that AVs may in principle outperform humans in their power of calculus, especially under the pressure of time and/or emotionally challenging circumstances. However, the assessment of long-term or cumulative (negative) effects of a policy remain a problem even in a scenario of superintelligent machines. These effects may include a negative impact on people perception of safety or a negative impact on the life of people systematically disadvantaged by the utilitarian policy.

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An Italian woman’s post featuring the 30,000-year-old artifact was removed late last year; last month, the museum that houses it called out the social network.

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An image of the Venus of Willendorf (ca 28,000–25,000 BCE), the iconic Stone Age sculpture of a female figure, is apparently too provocativeto appear ona personalFacebook page. In late December 2017, an Italian woman namedLaura Ghianda (who lists her occupation as “graffiti writer”) posted a photo of the ancient limestone nude on Facebook — only to have it removed for being deemed inappropriate, as the Art Newspaper and the reported. Her attempts to appeal the decision were unsuccessful, though three images of the artwork she posted subsequently remain.

The Naturhistorisches Museum in Vienna, which houses the Venus of Willendorf, has brought the incident to the attention of a wider public and criticized Facebook’s reaction to the Paleolithic artifact. A January 9 post on the museum’s Facebook page, calling attention to the censorship ofGhianda’s image, Reiss Medea Satin Crossfront Sandals in Crystal Blue Womens dUeOdwU
: “Let the Venus be naked!”

“There has never been a complaint by visitors concerning the nakedness of the figurine and we never heard of anybody who could have been offended by the look at this artifact,” the museum’s director general,Christian Koeberl, said in a statement sent to Hyperallergic. “The perfection of the representation and harmonious style make the 29,500-year-old figure of the ‘Venus of Willendorf’ one of the most expressive works of art from the Paleolithic Age.”

Meanwhile, the Naturhistorisches Museum’s own Facebook posts, which also feature theVenus of Willendorf, have never run afoul of the site’s murky nudity policies. A spokesperson for the museum noted: “Our postings have never been deleted/censored by Facebook. During the last few days, for example, we published a post about our Valentine’s Day special with the Venus of Willendorf, animal sex, etc., and it stayed on Facebook.”

Though Facebook revised its policies in 2015 to allow “ Aquazzura Woman Flora Appliquéd Suede Sandals Fuchsia Size 36 gD9Kts3A
,” images of artworks portraying nude figures are still taken down. Two years ago, for instance, the social network censored an image ofEdvard Eriksen’s famous “Little Mermaid” statue in Copenhagen. Facebook is currently on trial in France for similar censorship ofa 2011 post featuring Gustave Courbet’s “L’Origine du Monde” (1866). Though that work features a fairly detailed depiction of a nude woman’s crotch, the Venus ofWillendorf is less literal and clearly stylizesthe female figure.

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